English For Life Grade 8
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Mikhail Bulgakov - Wikipedia. Mikhail Bulgakov. Bulgakov in 1. 92. Born. Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov.
May . He was one of the seven children (the oldest of three brothers) of Afanasiy Ivanovich Bulgakov (ru) — a state councilor, an assistant professor at the Kiev Theological Academy, as well as a prominent Russian Orthodox essayist, thinker and translator of religious texts. His mother was Varvara Mikhailovna Bulgakova (nee Pokrovskaya), a former teacher.
Both of his grandfathers were clergymen in the Russian Orthodox Church. Haber, in his «autobiographical remarks» Bulgakov stated that she was a descendant of Tartar hordes, which supposedly influenced some of his works. However, there's no mention of it in Bulgakov's collection of works, so the source of the claims is unclear. At home, he wrote comedies, which his brothers and sisters acted out. The teachers of the Gymnasium exerted a great influence on the formation of his literary taste.
After the death of his father in 1. Mikhail's mother, a well- educated and extraordinarily diligent person, assumed responsibility for his education. After graduation from the Gymnasium in 1. He then took a position as a physician at the Kiev Military Hospital. At the outbreak of the First World War, he volunteered with the Red Cross as a medical doctor and was sent directly to the front, where he was badly injured at least twice.
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Bulgakov's suffering from these wounds had deleterious long- term effects. To suppress chronic pain, especially in the abdomen, he injected himself with morphine. Over the next year his addiction grew stronger. In 1. 91. 8, he abandoned morphine and never used it again. Morphine, a book released in 1.
In 1. 91. 6, Bulgakov graduated from the Medical Department of Kiev University and after serving as a surgeon at Chernovtsy hospital, was appointed provincial physician to Smolensk province. His life in those days is reflected in his A Country Doctor's Notebook.
In February 1. 91. Kiev, Ukraine, where he opened a private practice at his home at Andreyevsky Descent, 1. Here he lived through the Russian Civil War and witnessed ten coups. Successive governments drafted the young doctor into their service while two of his brothers were serving in the White Army against the Bolsheviks.
In February 1. 91. Ukrainian People's Army and assigned to the Northern Caucasus. There, he became seriously ill with typhus and barely survived. That was when he last saw his family; after the Civil War and the rise of the Soviets most of his relatives emigrated to Paris. After illness Bulgakov abandoned his career as a doctor for that of a writer. In his autobiography, he recalled how he started writing: .
In the town where the train stopped, I took the story to the publisher of the newspaper who published the story. In December 1. 91. Bulgakov moved to Vladikavkaz. He wrote and saw his first two plays, Self Defence and The Turbin Brothers, being produced for the city theater stage with great success. It was difficult to find work in the capital, but he was appointed secretary to the literary section of Glavpolitprosvet (Central Committee of the Republic for Political Education). To make a living, he started working as a correspondent and feuilletons writer for the newspapers Gudok, Krasnaia Panorama and Nakanune, based in Berlin. The most significant features of Bulgakov's satire, such as a skillful blending of fantastic and realistic elements, grotesque situations, and a concern with important ethical issues, had already taken shape; these features were developed further in his most famous novel.
On 5 October 1. 92. The Days of the Turbins, the play which continued the theme of The White Guard (the fate of Russian intellectuals and officers of the Tsarist Army caught up in revolution and Civil war). The premier of another, Moliere (The Cabal of Hypocrites), in which Bulgakov plunged . He received a phone call directly from the Soviet leader, who asked the writer whether he really desired to leave the Soviet Union. Bulgakov replied that a Russian writer cannot live outside of his homeland. Stalin gave him permission to continue working at the Art Theater; on 1. May 1. 93. 0. Later he adapted Gogol's Dead Souls for stage.
Many of them were not published, other ones were . Much of his work (ridiculing the Soviet system) stayed in his desk drawer for several decades. The refusal of the authorities to let him work in the theatre and his desire to see his family who were living abroad, whom he had not seen for many years, led him to seek drastic measures.
Despite his new work, the projects he worked on at the theatre were often prohibited, and he was strained and unhappy. Last years. He left after perceiving that none of his works would be produced there.
Stalin's favor protected Bulgakov from arrests and execution, but he could not get his writing published. His novels and dramas were subsequently banned and, for the second time, Bulgakov's career as playwright was ruined. When his last play Batum (1.
Stalin's early revolutionary days. Bulgakov were stressful years as he veered from glimpses of optimism, believing the publication of his masterpiece could still be possible, to bouts of depression, when he felt as if there were no hope. On 1. 5 June 1. 93. Bulgakov wrote in a letter to his wife. The most important remains – editing, and it's going to be hard, I will have to pay close attention to details. Maybe even re- write some things..
I don't know. Possibly, you will store the manuscript in one of the drawers, next to my 'killed' plays, and occasionally it will be in your thoughts. Then again, you don't know the future. My own judgement of the book is already made and I think it truly deserves being hidden away in the darkness of some chest.. Yelena Bulgakova remembered 3. Everything scared them.
Markov, in charge of the literature division of MAT) later at the door fearfully tried to explain to me that trying to publish the novel would cause terrible things. He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. His father had died of the same disease, and from his youth Bulgakov had guessed his future mortal diagnosis. Early works. Stalin was known to be fond of the play Days of the Turbins (. His dramatization of Moli.
Even after his plays were banned from the theatres, Bulgakov wrote a comedy about Ivan the Terrible's visit into 1. Moscow. His play Batum (1. Stalin was prohibited by the premier himself.
Bulgakov began writing prose with The White Guard (. In the mid- 1. 92. H. Wells and wrote several stories with elements of science fiction, notably The Fatal Eggs (. He intended to compile his stories of the mid- twenties (published mostly in medical journals) that were based on his work as a country doctor in 1. Notes of a Young Doctor (. At the time, an illness passes through the chickens of Moscow, killing most of them, and to remedy the situation, the Soviet government puts the ray into use at a farm. Due to a mix- up in egg shipments, the Professor ends up with chicken eggs, while the government- run farm receives the shipment of ostrich, snake and crocodile eggs ordered by the Professor.
The mistake is not discovered until the eggs produce giant monstrosities that wreak havoc in the suburbs of Moscow and kill most of the workers on the farm. The propaganda machine turns on Persikov, distorting his nature in the same way his . This tale of a bungling government earned Bulgakov his label of counter- revolutionary. Heart of a Dog features a professor who implants human testicles and a pituitary gland into a dog named Sharik (means . The dog becomes more and more human as time passes, resulting in all manner of chaos. The tale can be read as a critical satire of liberal nihilism and the communist mentality.
It contains a few bold hints to the communist leadership; e. It was adapted as a comic opera called The Murder of Comrade Sharik by William Bergsma in 1.
In 1. 98. 8 an award- winning movie version Sobachye Serdtse was produced by Lenfilm, starring Yevgeniy Yevstigneyev, Roman Kartsev and Vladimir Tolokonnikov. The Master and Margarita. The book contributed a number of sayings to the Russian language, for example, .
A destroyed manuscript of the Master is an important element of the plot. Bulgakov had to rewrite the novel from memory after he burned the draft manuscript. The work is appreciated for its philosophical undertones and for its high artistic level, thanks to its picturesque descriptions (especially of old Jerusalem), lyrical fragments and style. It is a frame narrative involving two characteristically related time periods, or plot lines: a retelling of the gospels and a description of contemporary Moscow. It develops into an all- embracing indictment of the corruption, greed, narrow- mindedness, and widespread paranoia of Soviet Russia. Published more than 2. Bulgakov's death, and more than ten years after Stalin's, the novel firmly secured Bulgakov's place among the pantheon of great Russian writers.
Among the items presented in the museum are original photos of Mikhail Bulgakov, books and his personal belongings, and a window frame from the house where he lived. The museum also keeps scientific works of Prof. Afanasiy Bulgakov, Mikhail's father. Mikhail Bulgakov Museum, Kiev. Both are situated in Bulgakov's old apartment building on Bolshaya Sadovaya street nr.
The Master and Margarita are set. Since the 1. 98. 0s, the building has become a gathering spot for Bulgakov's fans, as well as Moscow- based Satanist groups, and had various kinds of graffiti scrawled on the walls. The numerous paintings, quips, and drawings were completely whitewashed in 2. Previously the best drawings were kept as the walls were repainted, so that several layers of different colored paints could be seen around the best drawings.
Bulgakov, which invariably presents itself as . This museum has been established as a private initiative on May 1. The Bulgakov House contains personal belongings, photos, and several exhibitions related to Bulgakov's life and his different works.
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